Musculo Skeletal PainWhile much of conventional medicine focuses on treating disease, lifestyle medicine takes a more holistic approach. It is a commonly held belief that people feel better when the sun is shining”, however whilst acute exposure to sunlight and a pleasant temperature may anecdotally enhance mood, there appears to be an inconsistent relationship between seasonal variations and the prevalence of depression 131 , 132 The beneficial effect of sunlight exposure on mental health has been suggested to be mediated, in part, by vitamin D 133 However recent research involving 198 people with multiple sclerosis who were followed prospectively for an average of 2.3 years, showed that greater exposure to sunshine may decrease depressive symptoms, despite no correlation to vitamin D levels 134 Low levels of vitamin D appear to be associated with depression risk, although there is conflicting evidence as to the effects of supplementation on improving mood 33 , 133 , 135 Currently, the breadth of evidence provides inconsistent support for the use of vitamin D supplementation for depression.
While lifestyle medicine does require a certain knowledge base and skill set, it is much more than that it is really a philosophy and approach to care that is rooted in the science of conventional medicine but goes beyond traditional medical training.
29,30 The major barriers for the implementation of free from pain are factors derived from the disease itself and from its treatment, such as lack of motivation, low self-esteem and confidence; or side effects such as sedation or weight increase associated with pharmacological treatment.
Egger et al. concluded that Lifestyle medicine forms a bridge with public health and health promotion, where the latter is defined as ‘the combination of educational and environmental supports for actions and conditions of living conducive to health'” 10 (The contents in single quotation mark is taken from Greene and Kreuter's material 13 ).
Lifestyle Medicine is the science and application of 49 healthy lifestyles as interventions for the prevention and treatment of lifestyle-related diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, stroke, obesity, some neurological conditions and some cancers.
In 2009 the American College of Preventive Medicine hosted a blue ribbon panel meeting to establish core competencies in lifestyle medicine for primary care physicians (see table 1) 2. When patient care is approached from this foundation, it looks far different than what is being taught in typical medical school and residency curricula.
American Heart Association Strategic Plan for 2020 4 x4Lloyd-Jones DM, Hong Y, Labarthe D, et al. Defining and setting national goals for cardiovascular health promotion and disease reduction: The American heart association's strategic impact goal through 2020 and beyond.